Sunday, April 23, 2017

Prison Work Report

 Many times, I have proposed make Prison Industries an aggressive, and lucrative business. Then pay prisoners the market wage of their skills. Deduct from it in this order or sequence, 1) cost of prison; 2) cost of legal procedure; 3) cost of damage to crime victims; 4) cost to tax payer; 5) improving prison conditions.

There is much synthetic chemistry talent in prison. Start a generic drug business, including supplying death penalty drugs. There is much hacking talent. Start a computer security consulting, and problem solving business. There is much knowledge of outside criminal activity. Start a police education business. There is much agricultural talent in prison. Start a legal marijuana growing business. Marijuana generates more profit than all other crops in the US combined.

Structured activity, including massive overtime to generate income for everyone, will markedly reduce conflict and injuries in prion.

While most inmates are unfit for outside jobs, they may do well with the limit setting of prison and prison staff. Infractions should be punished by getting fired from the jobs. These will be seen as great privileges reserved for model prisoners.

If people are frustrated by not qualifying for real prison labor, offer opportunities for more education. If one cannot control ones moods and behaviors, to fit into a job situation, ask for treatment to control these.

Saturday, April 22, 2017

Civil Forfeiture to Solve the Monopoly of Facebook/Google/Twitter


Facebook/Google/Twitter has been a factor, a venue for many crimes.

In civil forfeiture, a grandma objects, she has done nothing wrong. The police is now seizing her house. They reply, we are not saying you have broken any law. However, your grandson conducted drug deals in this house, so this house is involved in criminal activity, may be seized.

A guy is pointed out by a drug dog. He say, he has done nothing wrong. The police is seizing his cash. The police says, we are not saying you have broken any law. However, your cash has traces of cocaine, so your cash has been involved in cocaine trafficking.  (All cash in America has traces of cocaine.)

Mark Zuckerberg will say, I have committed no crime. The Department of Justice  says, we are not saying your committed any crime. However, Facebook has been involved in thousands of terrorist and criminal acts. We are therefore seizing the assets of Facebook/Google/Twitter because of its involvement.

Civil forfeiture is the path to stop this abomination, Facebook/Google/Twitter. Seize all of its assets.

Because they meet the legal definition of a monopoly, the government, as possessor, could split them apart, The government executive branch could save delay, drama, and legal cost.

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Deep, Deep, Very Deep Prosecutorial Stupidity



Hat Tip to Prof. Douglas Berman for information on this Hearing on Synthetic Drugs. Hat Tip to one of my Patients for the Insider Glimpse into this Massive Unexplored World of Synthetic Drugs.

The listing has links to submitted testimony. The hearing lost an opportunity to hear from the players in this world. That would have been far more edifying than the standard establishment cliches.

Difficult subject.

1) All substances and likely all remedies have a dose response curve. When diluted, the strongest poison on earth, botulinum toxin, has 753 medical benefits. When consumed too much, water causes seizures and death among dozens of healthy athletes. So, all claims of benefit or of harm should specify the dose, and provide a dose response curve. Judgment is therefore very difficult and requires data that is always missing.

2) Massive synthetic chemistry entrepreneurship is ongoing out there. Some of it has the potential to help people with medical problems, some normal people to enhance performance and to reduce risk, such as of car crashes from inattention or from sleepiness. It is not a simple utilitarian calculation.
3) Changing body functions is lucrative when reliable and effective, so could boost the economy, and tax revenues.

4) There is a massive grey and black market for these products, driven by consumer satisfaction with them. Chat rooms on alternative Internets, with lively intellectual discussions, ratings, and marketing of these synthetic products are really busy. The internet approach of ratings rather than prohibition or draconian regulation is likely far more effective. Compare nearly worthless contract law to disappointing an Ebay user and getting a low rating. The latter makes zero difference to our economy, the latter is devastating to a business. This grey territory is massive public self help alternative to the legal system, and 10 times more effective. It should be encouraged and brought out of shadows into the light. Doctors should get into it as a source of medical advances at nearly no cost. The legal system should get out of its way but tax it and promote consumer powers.

5) This do it yourself culture and territory is a threat to highly over regulated and very expensive pharmacology business. I would support shutting down the FDA, repealing all its enabling statutes. Let all out competition and ratings replace its worthless rent seeking with useful and safer methodology of drug regulation.

6) With all this synthetic chemistry talent in stir, Prison Industries should get into the drug making business, to make death penalty drugs which are a joke to make for these guys, following 19th Century recipes. Then instead of manufacturing prison clothes for $10, manufacture generic and synthetic drugs for $100 or $1000 a batch. Do it responsibly, and put the profits into improving the lives of the prisoners and into compensating their victims.

Did any of the speakers convey this level of complexity, and this great potential for both harm and benefit?


Monday, April 17, 2017

Reply to Article by Dr. Burns Woodward, Marijuana and the Psychiatric Patient

I hope you did not cut your classes in Pharmacology the First Year of medical school. You would have been taught, all medications (likely all remedies) have a dose response curve. The strongest poison on earth, the botulinum toxin, when diluted, has 753 medical benefits. And, water, when drunk more than the kidneys can put out, results in seizures and in death, by swelling and  crushing brain cells against the skull.

So, when you say, marijuana is harmful, please specify, the patient characteristics, the dose, the duration of its ingestion. Explain why a THC receptor is located in the brain. Then, address this report. It looks pretty scientific to me.There are dozens of similar videos on Youtube, which you failed to address.

Reply by Senator Jay Costa to My Statement on Nurse Practitioner Independent Prescribing, and my Response

Dear Dr. Behar:

Thank you for contacting me to relate your opposition to Senate Bill 25, legislation that would amend Pennsylvania law to change the scope of practice for certified registered nurse practitioners in our state. I appreciate your interest in this matter and I understand that you are concerned about this bill.

As you are likely aware, Senate Bill 25 has passed the Senate Committee on Consumer Protection and Professional Licensure and was considered by the Senate for the first time on March 29, 2017. I signed on as a co-sponsor on this bill because I believe it is time for Pennsylvania to join the twenty-one states and the District of Columbia in allowing CRNPs to have full authority to practice. This change to our law will help us to reduce health care costs, to ensure that our law is in step with modern medical practice and to assist in ensuring quality care to the nearly 35 per cent of Pennsylvanians who have inadequate primary care access. I recognize that there is a significant difference in training between physicians and CRNPs. This bill does not make light of that difference and requires that CRNPs meet a three-year, 3,600-hour collaboration requirement before practicing more independently. I will consider your thoughts on this legislation and your reservations about it as it moves through the legislative process.

I could not disagree more strongly with your assertion that this legislation is motivated by racism. Pennsylvania has underserved populations of all races that could benefit from the broader practice authority of nurse practitioners, in rural and urban areas, and increasingly in suburban areas as well. Patients throughout the Commonwealth will benefit from cost savings created by this legislation, and I believe it is important that we pursue this course of action.

Again, thank you for taking the time to contact me about this legislation. Please feel free to contact me if I can assist you in any way.

Sincerely yours,
Senator Jay Costa, Jr.
43rd District
JC/jlg

*********************************
Jay. I demand you add an amendment. "All Pennsylvania legislators, all their staffs, and all their first degree family members are prohibited from seeing doctors for medical care." Save some money. Experience the inferior care of black patients on Medicaid that you will be forcing on them.
I also request that you reveal all campaign contributions by insurance companies. It is they who are driving this movement. 



Statement to PA Medical Society on their Survey about MD Opinion of Maintenance of Certification Examinations (MOC)

Got card on MOC opinions. Wow, decided to help doctors for a change.

This message is for Angela, legal counsel.

1) Is there any racial, sex or age disparity in the pass rates? The Stanford Binet was banned because black children performed worse on it. It is the most proven test in history. The results at age 7 predict the achievements of people at age 50. It was used to provide more services for black kids, not to discriminate against them. Because of their lower performance, it was banned. Larry P v Riles 793 F.2d 969 (1984);

2) Regulatory quackery. By their testing the Boards are acting as quasigovernmental agencies.  If their tests have not been validated by outside outcomes, they violate Fifth Amendment procedural due process rights to a fair hearing when damage has been caused by their test results;

3) Regulatory taking, by forcing people to spend large amounts of money to take the exam;

4) Fraud, by any claim that any doctor passing its exams has any more knowledge or skill than one not taking it;

5) Civil or criminal RICO by any communication with any insurer or governmental agency to privilege any doctor who has passed its exam.


Takutsubo Everywhere

I am aware of a total business practice in this country. I have called it Takutsubo. The term is from cardiology. It refers to a Japanese octopus trap. The little octopus heads in, and cannot get out. It would have to put its tentacles together and to swim backwards to get out. Impossible.

It takes a minute to give a business money. It is impossible to ever get any money out. Try to cancel  a phone account, a magazine subscription. Try to make a health insurance company pay for treatment. It takes hours, if one can ever do it at all. One factor to think about is that no one will ever see any money from a life insurance policy. They will disappear. Once found, they will give us the runaround. Once that is ended, they will find something wrong with the application from 30 years ago. So on. Takutsubo is everywhere.

Takutsubo is a form of fraud in my view, since it is not disclosed in any contract. It results in unjust enrichment of the business. It is on my long list of litigation subjects.

I did make a credible legal threat to ATT. I was able to cancel my phone service quickly and easily. My threat was also followed by their advertising rollover minutes as their policy 2 months after my complaint to the FCC, a step required in litigation. I also refused to speak to their Vice President of Legal Affairs.

Right now, it has been impossible to use my Amazon $25 gift card. I had to find and use a magnifying glass to get the validation number and the card number. I am grateful, I did not have to find a heavy microscope. I entered a long validation code on a separate web page. I then entered the actual long number of the card into an order. I have done so three times. No. I have spent $100 in time to make it work. I am about to give up. They are going to just keep the $25.
Takutsubo.



Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Remedies for False Allegations of Rape

Washington Post report on Rolling Stone settlement with U of Virginia official after false allegation of rape, and false allegation of indifference by the university to the allegation of rape.

Martha Stewart spent 5 months in prison, 5 months on house arrest, and years on probation not for insider trading, but for lying about not receiving a phone call, to FBI agents, at her home, in an informal interview, not under oath.

All false allegations of rape should result in the same charge and sentencing. All false allegations should result in tort liability of the false accuser, of any newspaper reprinting the false allegations, and of any police or prosecutorial agency, falsely prosecuting such allegations.

Once the false accuser is convicted, the tort liability should be automatic. The sole question for any tribunal should be the value of any damage to the falsely accused.


Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Sue The Zoophobic and Discriminatory Prosecutors

Not knowing the law was a successful sentencing mitigation in this case.

She should sue to deter the prosecution of the 543 ways we humans can love.

The idea that an adult St Bernard is incapable of giving consent is false and highly offensive. The dog should seek legal standing and sue for violations of his human rights.

Marijuana Laws, A Conflict of Laws to the Extreme

Reviewed here.

This is an article written by a lawyer benefiting from this conflict, providing compliance services.

Basically:

1) Conflict between states with varying amounts of legalization and the continued prohibition at the federal level (Control Substances Act of 1970);

2) drug testing laws, and on the job and off the job use;

3) accommodations required by the disabling condition requiring medical marijuana use;

4) absence of case law, and unclear legal rights of employees;

5) conflicting laws and regulations faced by employers with multi-state locations.

Sunday, April 9, 2017

Letter to the Reading Eagle About the Inferior Care of Nurse Practitioners and the Racial Motivation to Grow their Ranks


Here.

This is the original submission, softened by the editor:

Force Legislators, Their Families To See Only Nurse Practitioners

David Behar, MD

A patient commented, a nurse practitioner insisted the growing lesion on his arm was an "age spot."  The patient demanded to see the dermatologist, after a year. From the door, the doctor stated, “That is a squamous cell carcinoma. It has to come out.”

Would a member of the legislature with crushing chest pain, shortness of breath, want to be seen by a cardiologist or by a nurse practitioner typing an  electronic record? The lives of black people on Medicaid are worth no less than that of the white legislator. The movement to allow nurse practitioners to prescribe unsupervised, will result in a two tiered health system, one for whites, one for blacks. There is no doctor shortage, only of doctor time. Half of that time is consumed by worthless procedure so that fewer payments are made for  patient care by government and by insurance companies. It is the greatest fraud crime in history, netting $trillions.

People with perfect grades get into nurse practitioner programs. All could go to medical school. They choose to make money earlier. That corner cutting should not be rewarded with independent prescribing privileges. They know one quarter what specialists know, and half as much as primary care physicians do. They are fit only to prescribe for patients doing well, under supervision.

What Medical Literature Should Imitate from Law Reviews

I commend law reviews for making their content available to the public, for free.

Medical journals must do the same. Medical scholars should submit articles only to medical journals that are open to the public.

The public actually already paid for the content in the form of the tax support of research grants, faculty salary subsidies, and payments for the patient care involved in the research.

Reply to the Lancet Article Promoting Decarceration


It is summarized here, in The Atlantic.

Lancet? The Huff Post of medical journals. Left wing British medical propaganda. Self dealing, rent seeking trash.

The authors? Cornell and Yale. What? Dismissed. Ivy assholes. If they did not promulgate lying, left wing propaganda, they would be driven out of those left wing, treason indoctrination camps.

1) I invite the defense lawyers to chime in. Are you a little stressed, a little scared, when speaking to the vicious, heartless, inhuman super predators whom you protect, privilege, and empower, even during brief meetings, even with them in cuffs? Imagine, being a kid, and not being to leave the house, with a guy maintaining a criminal business and an active addiction in your home; children are 100 time better off with less contact with these super-predators;

2) how do children learn? They barely know any English with vocabularies in the hundreds of words. If their attention span exceeds 2 minute, you have a little genius there. So do they learn by parsing the rule making and lectures of their parents and teachers about doing the right thing? No. They imitate what people say and do in their surroundings. These Ivy assholes want to put people in the homes of children, each committing hundreds of crimes a year, many violent;

3)who hangs out with these criminals, and visits the home? Is it the people of God? It is other people with no morals. So, even if the criminal parent does not use the little girls in the house as fuck dolls, his pals will;

4) child abuse has decreased. Try to guess how that happened? Sex offender registries? Making everyone a mandated reporter? No, assholes, it happened when the child rapists ended up in stir for their non-violent crime of selling drugs.

Rent seeking makes people other people than lawyers really stupid. I have not been addressing medical rent seeking, and please do not ask me to. It is ten times bigger than lawyer rent seeking and 100 times more toxic.

Saturday, March 25, 2017

I Now Support Abolition of the Death Penalty

I once tried to buy a briefcase in the souk of Fez, Morocco. I said, this looks like plastic, and you are charging for leather. He replied, it is European leather. Ah, I said.

I now support abolition of the death penalty.

1) We should have the European death penalty. It is quite lively, and it is called, suicide. The US prisons accomplished the greatest achievement in psychiatry of the 20th Century, at no cost, no program, no treatment, no additional staff. They nearly eliminated prison suicide by a warden policy change, eyesight supervision. No one knows about this greatest of achievements in psychiatry, to come close to eliminating the hard, harsh outcome of psychiatric disorders, death. Meanwhile suicide in European prisons is massive, with violent offenders properly at the highest risk, numbering in the hundreds, if not in the under-reported thousands;

2) The opiate overdose epidemic will be causing the attrition of the violent criminal class. That will be thanks to Chinese imported carfentanyl, an opiate 10,000 times more potent than morphine. It standard use is by veterinarians needing to deeply anesthetize elephants for prolonged major surgeries;

3) CRISPR/cas9 technology will soon fix the defects that result in criminality and in addiction. These defects were well described in the mid 19th Century. This change will be despite the all out obstruction by the lawyer profession, trying to save their totally worthless, and toxic, government, make work jobs.

The law, a worthless form of rent seeking, is in deep failure. It never addresses problems, only technology does.The Supreme Court once abolished the death penalty. That decision caused a lot of lawyer unemployment, from the immediate layoff of the entire death penalty appellate bar. They raked in $billions a year of tax payer money, returning nothing of any value. The Supreme Court quickly corrected its mistake. They now have the death penalty exquisitely tuned for its sole real purpose, lawyer employment.

Almost no one is executed. There were three dozen executions a year, in the face of  soaring murders in many cities, now at a total of 15000. Yet, $billions are being spent on death penalty legal appeals. It takes decades, not years to execute a murderer. This is a  condition perfectly tuned by the  Supreme Court in the Baze decision, of maximizing lawyer employment, while making the death penalty worthless.

To every remedy there is a dose response curve. Too little does not work. Too much is toxic. The same applies to the death penalty. Imagine giving a miracle drug like penicillin. Give a dose to one in hundred pneumonia patients. Price it at $10 million. Wait 10 years after the onset of pneumonia. It will not be effective, and people will claim, penicillin is too expensive, does not work, abolish it.

Tuesday, March 21, 2017

Computers Should Replace all Prosecutors, Judges, and Jurors in a Trial

Prosecutorial discretion is a  euphemism for total lawyer personal bias, incompetence, and idiocy. There is no group in our nation that is stupider than the lawyer profession. Students in Life Skills class, learning to eat with utensils, and to put on shirts on their own, would represent a marked upgrade in decision making if placed on the Supreme Court. They would have 10 times the common sense than the mentally crippled lawyers now controlling it.

Robots running legislative enacted algorithms should be making all prosecutorial decisions. Death penalty, even in absentia, to anyone trying to hack one. As usual, only technology will rescue us from the plague of lawyers besieging this nation. Lawyer prosecutors can be re-hired to roll one into court.

Chess has 37 possible moves. Computers beat all humans long ago. Go, the Chinese board game, has a billion possible moves. Recently, a computer beat the best human Go player. It made a move the champion said no human could have thought of.

Legal decisions are far closer to the limited game of chess, than to the vast game of Go. A computer should even be able to look 10 moves ahead.

If people do not like the outcomes of computerized legal decisions, they have the recourse of electing legislators who will change the algorithms.

Computers making errors should be liable in torts, as should their programmers, as should the legislatures causing damages by their carelessness in writing the algorithm. Due to the nature of sentencing decisions, and the far higher standards of performance of a sentencing computer, the wrongful decisions should be subject to strict liability.

Saturday, March 18, 2017

Surprising Mental Health Results

I thought they were all nuts.

Cat ownership not linked to mental health problems
University College London New
New UCL research has found no link between cat ownership and psychotic symptoms, casting doubt on previous suggestions that people who grew up with cats are at higher risk of mental illness.

Recent research has suggested that cat ownership might contribute to some mental disorders, because cats are the primary host of the common parasite Toxoplasma Gondii (T. Gondii), itself linked to mental health problems such as schizophrenia. However, the new study, published in the journal Psychological Medicine, suggests that cat ownership in pregnancy and childhood does not play a role in developing psychotic symptoms during adolescence. The study looked at nearly 5000 people born in 1991 or 1992 who were followed–up until the age of 18. The researchers had data on whether the household had cats while the mother was pregnant and when the children were growing up.

"The message for cat owners is clear: there is no evidence that cats pose a risk to children's mental health," says lead author Dr Francesca Solmi (UCL Psychiatry). "In our study, initial unadjusted analyses suggested a small link between cat ownership and psychotic symptoms at age 13, but this turned out to be due to other factors. Once we controlled for factors such as household over–crowding and socioeconomic status, the data showed that cats were not to blame. Previous studies reporting links between cat ownership and psychosis simply failed to adequately control for other possible explanations."

The new study was significantly more reliable than previous research in this area since the team looked at families who were followed up regularly for almost 20 years. This is much more reliable than methods used in previous studies, which asked people with and without mental health problems to remember details about their childhood. Such accounts are more vulnerable to errors in recall which can lead to spurious findings.

Previous studies were also relatively small and had significant gaps in the data, whereas the new study looked at a large population and was able to account for missing data. The new study was not able to measure T. Gondii exposure directly, but the results suggest that if the parasite does cause psychiatric problems then cat ownership does not significantly increase exposure.

"Our study suggests that cat ownership during pregnancy or in early childhood does not pose a direct risk for later psychotic symptoms," explains senior author Dr James Kirkbride (UCL Psychiatry). "However, there is good evidence that T. Gondii exposure during pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects and other health problems in children. As such, we recommend that pregnant women should continue to follow advice not to handle soiled cat litter in case it contains T. Gondii."


Monday, March 13, 2017

Sell, Sell, Sell

Sell your DC Beltway region home, before all those federal employees have to move out.

Sunday, March 12, 2017

Reply to Doximity Request for Nominations of Psychiatric Hospitals Offering the Best Care

Most academic hospitals are staffed by trainees. Their supervisors spend only half their time on patient care, and have half the experience of clinicians.
Furthermore, all hospitals are now subject to implacable pressure from insurance companies to discharge patients after a few days. So the sole care that takes place in hospitals is to provide some eyesight supervision for dangerous patients. They are loaded up on medications with strong sedative side effects to quiet them. That way they may be discharged safely, with a lesser risk of litigation against the hospital for malpractice. Most psychiatric medications take weeks to work, since the brain is a very slow changing organ.
Upon discharge, the sedative side effects wear off after a couple of weeks, and the patient is back to his original level of distress and dangerousness.
There is no quality psychiatric hospital care in the United States. Any result you may come up with will be quite misleading to desperate families.
David Behar, MD

Saturday, March 4, 2017

Snail Venom Potential Alternative to Opiates in Chronic Pain



Feb 20, 2017 1:00 PM
A tiny snail may offer an alternative to opioids for pain relief. Scientists at the University of Utah have found a compound that blocks pain by targeting a pathway not associated with opioids. Research in rodents indicates that the benefits continue long after the compound have cleared the body. The findings were reported online in the February 20 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The opioid crisis has reached epidemic proportions. Opioids is highly addictive and according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 91 Americans die every day from an opioid overdose. The medical community is in need of alternative therapies that do not rely on the opioid pathways to relieve pain.
“Nature has evolved molecules that are extremely sophisticated and can have unexpected applications,” begins Baldomera Olivera, Ph.D., professor in biology at the University of Utah. “We were interested in using venoms to understand different pathways in the nervous system.”
Conus regius, a small marine cone snail common to the Caribbean Sea, packs a venomous punch, capable of paralyzing and killing its prey.
In this study, the researchers found that a compound isolated from snail’s venom, Rg1A, acts on a pain pathway distinct from that targeted by opioid drugs. Using rodent models, the scientists showed that a9a10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) functions as a pain pathway receptor and that RgIA4 is an effective compound to block this receptor. The pathway adds to a small number of nonopioid-based pathways that could be further developed to treat chronic pain.
Interestingly, the duration of the pain relief is long, greatly outlasting the presence of the compound in the animal’s system.
The compound works its way through the body in 4 hours, but the scientists found the beneficial effects lingered. “We found that the compound was still working 72 hours after the injection, still preventing pain,” said J. Michael McIntosh, M.D., professor of psychiatry at the University of Utah Health Sciences.  The duration of the outcome may suggest that the snail compound has a restorative effect on some components of the nervous system.
“What is particularly exciting about these results is the aspect of prevention,” said McIntosh. “Once chronic pain has developed, it is difficult to treat. This compound offers a potential new pathway to prevent pain from developing in the first place and offer a new therapy to patients who have run out of options.”
The researchers will continue to the next step of pre-clinical testing to investigate the safety and effectiveness of a new drug therapy.

Testing a new nonopioid compound
Previous research had shown that RgIA was effective in rodents, but the scientists wanted to ensure they had a compound that would work in people. To do this, they used synthetic chemistry to engineer 20 analogs of the compound. In essence, the scientists started with a key (RgIA) that fits into a lock (the pain pathway receptor a9a10 nAChR). Using the key as a template, they developed new keys (analogs) with slightly different configurations.
The scientists found one key that best fit the lock: the analog RgIA4 tightly bound to the human receptor.
To test whether the compound relieved pain, the scientists administered it to rodents that were exposed to a chemotherapy drug that causes extreme cold sensitivity, as well as hypersensitivity to touch. “Interactions that are not normally painful, like sheets rubbing against the body or pants against the leg, becomes painful,” said McIntosh.
While the untreated rodents experienced pain after exposure to the chemotherapy drug, rodents given the compound did not experience pain. Nor did rodents that were genetically altered rodents to lack the pain pathway receptor. This work demonstrates that a9a10 nAChR acts as a pain pathway receptor, and that RgIA4 prevents the receptor from being activated.
Most pain medications available today work through a limited number of pathways and are not sufficient to alleviate chronic pain. “RgIA4 works by an entirely new pathway, which opens the door for new opportunities to treat pain,” said McIntosh. “We feel that drugs that work by this pathway may reduce burden of opioid use.”
###
McIntosh and Olivera collaborated with colleagues from University of Utah, University of Florence, Italy, A.T. Still University, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Kineta, Inc., Seattle, and the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City.
The research was funded by National Institutes of Health, Department of Defense, and Kineta, Inc.